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工业建筑设计要点

   随着社会经济和科学技术的不断发展,工业厂房越来越多样化且面积和功能复杂程度也不断增大,这使得厂房的防火设计逐渐受到重视并提出了更高的要求,从而达到保障工业厂房的消防安全减少火灾隐患的目的。那么,小编今天就对厂房的一些防火设计要点做以下总结。

  其一,我们要对建筑物生产的火灾危险性分类做出正确的定义。根据《建筑设计防火规范》GB50016-2014第3.1.1条规定生产的火灾危险性应根据生产中使用或产生的物质性质及其数量等因素划分,可分为甲、乙、丙、丁、戊类并应符合表3.1.1的规定。该条文实质上是对生产的火灾危险性分类原则做出了规定,比如生产中使用的物质,划分甲、乙、丙类液体闪点的基准、可燃气体爆炸下限的确定基准、甲类火灾危险性的生产特性、乙类火灾危险性的生产特性、丙类火灾危险性的生产特性、丁类火灾危险性的生产特性、戊类火灾危险性的生产特性。
  其二,我们要按要求确定建筑的耐火等级。它的确定可依据《建筑设计防火规范》GB50016-2014第3.2小结,其中3.2.1条规定厂房的耐火等级可分为一、二、三、四级并确定相应建筑构件的燃烧性能和耐火极限,3.2.2条规定高层厂房,甲、乙类厂房的耐火等级不应低于二级,建筑面积不大于300m2的独立甲、乙类单层厂房可采用三级耐火等级的建筑,3.2.3条规定单、多层丙类厂房和多层丁、戊类厂房的耐火等级不应低于三级等等条文均作出了相应规定。
  其三,我们要合理划分建筑的防火分区,对每个防火分区的面积进行严格的控制。根据《建筑设计防火规范》GB50016-2014第3.3.1条厂房的层数和每个防火分区的最大允许建筑面积应符合表3.3.1的规定。
  其四,我们要控制厂房之间的防火间距及厂房的安全疏散。这在《建筑设计防火规范》GB50016-2014第3.4小结和3.7小结做出了规定。
  最后,工业厂房的防火设计是个较为复杂的问题,有许多需要注意的事项和值得探讨的内容。在设计的过程中应严格地贯彻防火规范的要求,从全局出发,统筹兼顾,积极采取行之有效的防火技术,做到保障安全、方便使用、经济合理。
    With the continuous development of social economy and science and technology, the industrial plant is becoming more and more diversified and the area and function complexity are also increasing, which makes the fire protection design of the plant gradually attracted attention and put forward higher requirements, so as to achieve the purpose of ensuring the fire safety of the industrial plant and reducing the fire hazards. In that case, today, Xiaobian summarizes some key points of fire protection design of the plant.
    First, we need to make a correct definition of the fire risk classification of building production. According to Article 3.1.1 of code for fire protection design of buildings (gb50016-2014), the fire risk of production shall be divided into class A, class B, class C, class D and class E according to the nature and quantity of substances used or produced in production, and shall conform to the provisions of table 3.1.1. In essence, this article has made provisions on the classification principle of fire risk in production, such as the substances used in production, the basis for dividing the flash point of class A, B and C liquid, the basis for determining the lower explosion limit of combustible gas, the production characteristics of class a fire risk, the production characteristics of class B fire risk, the production characteristics of class C fire risk, and the production of class D fire risk Characteristics, production characteristics of class E fire hazard.
    Secondly, we need to determine the fire resistance rating of the building according to the requirements. It can be determined according to the summary of 3.2 in code for fire protection design of buildings (gb50016-2014), in which the fire resistance rating of plant specified in 3.2.1 can be divided into 1, 2, 3 and 4 levels, and the combustion performance and fire resistance limit of corresponding building components can be determined. In 3.2.2, the fire resistance rating of high-rise plant, class A and class B plant shall not be lower than class II, and the building area shall not be greater than 300m2 for independent class A and class B single floor Buildings with three-level fire resistance rating can be used in the plant. Article 3.2.3 stipulates that the fire resistance rating of single and multi-layer class C plants and multi-layer class D and class E plants shall not be lower than Class III and other articles have made corresponding provisions.
    Thirdly, we should reasonably divide the fire zones of buildings and strictly control the area of each fire zone. According to Article 3.3.1 of code for fire protection design of buildings (gb50016-2014), the number of floors of the plant and the maximum allowable building area of each fire compartment shall meet the requirements of table 3.3.1.
    Fourthly, we need to control the fire separation between the plants and the safe evacuation of the plants. This is stipulated in summary 3.4 and summary 3.7 of code for fire protection design of buildings (gb50016-2014).
    Finally, the fire protection design of industrial plant is a complex problem, which has many matters needing attention and contents worth discussing. In the process of design, it is necessary to strictly implement the requirements of fire prevention code, start from the overall situation, take overall consideration, and actively adopt effective fire prevention technology to ensure safety, convenient use and economic rationality.